MICROWAVE BIOEFFECT CONGRUENCE WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA
John J. McMurtrey,a Copyright 2002, 8/25/03
In view of the documentation for microwave technology to induce internal voice in humans, the correlation between microwave bioeffects and schizophrenia is reviewed. These correlations are extensive and include cognitive deficit, electrophysiologic activity, startle decrease, neurotransmitter changes, hormone alterations, immune alterations, mitochondria deficits, deleterious histologic change in disease reduced brain areas, activation of hallucination involved brain areas, and ocular disease. Schizophrenia correlates with microwave bioeffests such that congruence indicates microwave involvement with this disorder. The development of methods to exclude microwave means in psychosis is imperative, and research is proposed.
Microwave induced sound1and internal voice technology has long been discovered, 2 developed,3, 4 detailed in patents, 5, 6 with weapons applications described. 7, 8, 9 That such technology can be applied remotely and coupled to target tracking technology10 has implications for patients who, by virtue of internal voice complaint and other symptoms are diagnosed with schizophrenia.11 A frequent patient understanding of the origin of these voices is by remote transmission, though the very concept is considered delusional,12 and often the diagnosis is psychosis of varying severity depending on functional ability,13 without any investigation of the described internal voice capabilities.
Microwave voice transmission substantiation suggests examination of microwave bioeffect correlation with schizophrenia, which has the most hallucination prevalence. This examination reveals correlations that are listed in Table I. These correlations are so numerous and extensive that a high level of congruence between microwave bioeffects and schizophrenia is apparent. The effects discussed are within the microwave hearing spectrum, (100-10,000 MHz or 0.1-10 GHz) and intensity is in terms of the existing US standards,14 as in parenthesis. Microwave exposure duration terms are defined below.b
Schizophrenia cognitive deficit is particularly in memory.15, 16 Schizophrenic prefrontal cortex dysfunction is considered important, with this regions working memory role as central, to many schizophrenic symptoms.17 Rat working memory performance in a radial arm maze is deficient on microwave exposure (60% of US pop. std.) 18, 19 Rat water maze performance is deficient in spatial memory with acute pulsed microwave exposure (1.2 X US pop. std.)20 Prolonged rat microwave continuous wave exposures exhibit shuttle box and intermittent response training deficits (30% of US pop. std. to 1.2 X US occup. std.),21, 22, 23, 24 with more pronounced decrements on extended exposure.25 Other studies found rat food pellet reinforcement deficits on continuous wave or pulsed microwave exposures (½ to 1.6 X US occup. std.)26, 27, 28 Multiple human case report of memory difficulty, with other neurasthenic complaints exists on excess microwave exposure.29 Accidental and/or occupational 1-10 GHz excess radar exposure exhibits frontal lobe neuropsychiatric symptoms.30
An electrophysiologic indicator of working memory, contingent negative variation (CNV)31 is decreased in several mental illnesses with the greatest decreases in schizophrenia.32, 33, 34 Cell phone radiation also decreases human CNV.35, 36 The test involves a warning stimulus and an imperative stimulus with the intervening evoked waveform representative of sensory and motor adjustment prior to expected action.
Electrophysiologic auditory event related P300 and antecedents are reduced in schizophrenia,37, 38 with increased latency.39 Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) auditory event responses during hallucination are also decreased,40 resembling responses to interfering sound.41 Like hallucination or outside sound, pulsed microwaves decrease auditory electrophysiologic evoked potential amplitudes with a tendency towards increased latency in rats and rabbits (less than US occup. std.)42 Hearing effect pulsed microwaves evoke brain responses similar to auditory stimuli.43, 44, 45 Human hearing threshold increases for auditory tones on radiofrequency exposure.46 Schizophrenia auditory P300 reduction is related to deleterious signs and poor prognosis.47
Soviet and American microwave exposure of humans report EEG increases in delta or slow waves, abnormal to alertness in quantity. Acute human exposure to continuous waves at the low microwave hearing spectrum end and pulsed frequencies at the high spectrum end, exhibit increased electroencephalogram (EEG) delta waves (less than US pop. std.)48 Soviet and East European microwave occupational exposure review observes increased EEG delta waves.49 Cell phones also increase human delta waves.50
Rabbit and rat microwave irradiation yield delta waves as well. Daily 3 hour rabbit exposures produces delta wave increases at 1 month to pulsed microwaves and at 2 months to continuous wave exposure (1/2 US occup. std.)51 Daily 7 hour microwaves produces delta waves after 10-15 days in rabbits at 1/3rd the US population exposure standard, but took 1 month for delta wave increase at 1/30th this standard.52 Rat microwave irradiation induces delta waves in the left hemisphere by continuous wave, but in the right hemisphere when modulated.53 Delta waves are also produced by extra low frequency radiation in rabbits54 or magnetic fields in humans.55
Microwave delta wave increases correspond to delta wave increases widely noted in untreated,56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 and medicated65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72 schizophrenia EEGs.73 Delta waves particularly correspond to psychotic episodes, 74, 75 and occur immediately prior to auditory hallucination.76
Electromagnetic field EEG entrainment occurs especially within physiologic brain frequencies (1-40 Hz.), either with a so modulated carrier wave or at these extra low frequencies. Microwave EEG entrainment (or change to exposure frequency) is demonstrated in cats,77 and rats.78 Lower frequency radiation or magnetic EEG entrainment is observed in rabbits,79 monkeys,80 and humans.81 In addition to the capacity of entrainment to produce delta waves, the effect forms a basis for schizophrenic thought interference complaints, and is of non-lethal weapon concern.82
Some schizophrenics are hypo- or non-responders to orienting responses83 and normally evoked electrodermal activity.84 Microwave occupational exposure inhibits galvanic skin response.85 Some schizophrenics have little or no startle response.86 Microwave exposed rats exhibit decreased startle under both continuous wave87 and pulsed88, 89 conditions (1.2 X US occup. std.) Pre-natal rat exposure decreases startle in females (1.2 X US occup. std.)90 Rats also fight less on microwave exposure (23 % of US pop. std.),91 and avoid hearing effect pulsed microwaves.92
Both schizophrenia and microwave exposure involve brain dopamine alterations. Many have long attributed positive schizophrenic symptoms to dopamine increases based on differential drug effects.93 However, negative symptom schizophrenic findings from dopamine metabolite, dopamine receptor, and drug studies indicate decreased dopamine.94 Based on behavioral changes, drug study results, and enzyme alterations, microwave exposure also indicates decreased dopamine.95
Other neurotransmitter alterations correspond in both microwave bioeffect and schizophrenia. Brain postmortem tissue analysis, cerebrospinal fluid, and drug studies find decreased schizophrenic serotonin.96 Although rat serotonin metabolite ratios indicate increased serotonin turnover rates on acute microwave exposure (3.1 X US pop. std.),97 brain serotonin decrease occurs on prolonged exposure (near US occup. std.) (45, Hermann) Rat microwave exposure from birth to 15 days decreased serotonin in adults (near ½ US occup. std.)98 Cortical synaptosome ã-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake and release is reported decreased in schizophrenics, who have decreased GABA neurons,99 and synthetic enzymes. 100 GABA receptor binding (by 3H-muscimol) decreases in rat neocortex on microwave irradiation (2.6 X US occup. std.)101 Cholinergic system disruption impairs memory and attention; prominent schizophrenia features, however though acetylcholine alterations are indicated, evidence for either an overall increase or decrease is inconclusive.102 Similarly indeterminate is the microwave net effect on acetylcholine. Microwaves inactivate acetylcholine esterase activity103 (which may increase cholinergic activity, though disputed as to the enzymes Km), (45, Hermann) and abolish scopolamine anticholinergic effects.104 However, acute rat microwave exposure decreases sodium dependent choline uptake, the rate limiting step in acetylcholine synthesis, especially in frontal cortex followed by the striatum on either pulsed or continuous wave, but only pulsation decreased hippocampal choline uptake (60 % of US pop. std.)105, 106 (18, Lai, 89)
The hippocampus and striatum are limbic structures-- a brain system prominent in schizophrenia pathogenesis. This system is also involved in microwave bioeffects.107, 108 Microwave exposure amplification of hippocampus theta rhythm is observed (30 % of US pop. std.),109 with histologic and anatomic alteration reported.110, 111
Corticotrophin is indicated to mediate microwave stress,112, 113 and microwaves influence adrenal steroids. Satellite station operator microwave exposures produce a stress reaction of urinary increases in 11-oxycorticosteroids and stress hormone diurnal pattern shift (1/10th of US pop. std.)114 Rat microwave exposure yields adrenal activation resulting in adrenal medulla epinephrine and corticosteroid depletion (1.8 X US occup. std.)115 Female rat microwave exposure increased corticosterone and ACTH, with decreased estradiol independent of pregnancy.116, 117, 118 Schizophrenic patients have increased cortisol with less dexamethasone cortisol suppression than controls,119, 120 and corticosterone increase is reported.121 Schizophrenics have such hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over activity with ACTH increase as to feature the metabolic syndrome.122 Patient cortisol lacks sleep inhibition, and correlates with paranoia and hallucination.
Some negative syndrome schizophrenics have decreased melatonin.123 Electro-magnetic fields diminish melatonin in animals.124 (95, Frey, 94) Human melatonin decrease is both at lower frequencies,125, 126, 127, 128 and on cell phone use.129 The pineal gland synthesizes melatonin from serotonin,130 also decreased as above. Abnormal EEG and decreased melatonin are associated with pineal calcification,131 which has lower incidence in undeveloped societies132 who also show better schizophrenic prognosis.133
Mitochondria are altered in both schizophrenia and microwave exposure. Mitochondria deformation, size reduction, and decrease in number from 20-33% in schizophrenia brain are observed.134 Cytochrome c oxidase, of the mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation system, is reduced from 30-63% in the schizophrenic brain.135 Schizophrenic mitochondria gene expression is decreased in five pathways.136 Acute microwave exposure evidences mitochondria matrix density decrease, and cristae degen-eration in vitro (1.2 X US occup. std.)137 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) levels depend on oxidative phosphorylation, which requires electron transport components of mitochondria cristae. Very brief (5 min) whole body microwave exposure significantly decreased rat brain ATP and CP levels (2.5 X occup. std.)138, 139
Schizophrenic brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows decreased phosphomonoesters, and increased phosphodiesters. 140 This represents reduced lipid membrane building blocks, and increased lipid degradation products. Microwave exposed rabbits decrease P32 incorporation into brain lipids (1.8 X US pop. std.)141
Blood Brain Barrier Permeability
Molecular and cellular evidence suggests blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment in 18-29% of Schizophrenics.142 Non-thermal microwave alteration of the BBB permeability is consistently observed,143, 144, 145, 146 and is attributed to pinocytosis.147, 148 The alteration is proposed induced by heat shock protein phosphorylation,149 and heat shock protein antibodies are among the evidence for schizophrenia BBB impairment. Studies not showing the effect have utilized short exposures, thermal microwave levels, and are criticized for procedure or publication behavior150 Thermal microwave BBB studies are complicated by decreased BBB permeability at about 40o brain temperature,151 but at 2o higher permeability greatly increases.152, 153
A schizophrenia autoimmune etiology is indicated by several immune alterations, including abnormally high autoantibodies against brain and somatic antigens,154, 155 Higher autoimmune disease prevalence in these patients and their relatives is reported.156, 157 Foreign abstracts indicate microwaves cause autoimmune stimulation.158, 159, 160
Increases of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are a feature of autoimmune disease. (155, Ganguli) Ten reports of an increase in IL-6 in schizophrenia are versus six reporting a normal level, while four reports of an increase of IL-1â in the disease are versus six reporting a normal level.161 Electromagnetic field exposure of human monocytes, the most important producer these cytokines, dramatically increased production of IL-6 and IL-1â.162 These fields were lower in frequency than microwave.
High tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels are reported in schizophrenia. (154, Gaughran) Very low intensity microwave whole body exposure increases TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and spleen T cells (2 X 10-4 of US pop. std.)163, 164 Microwave exposure TNF increase has several other reports.165, 166, 167
The balance of evidence shows B lymphocyte increase in schizophrenia (5 reports of increase versus 3 of normal levels.) (142, Rothermundt) Whole body microwave exposure increases the proportion of mouse spleen B lymphocytes.168, 169 This increase is not caused by proliferation, but from stimulation of already existing precursor B cell maturation,170 and is under genetic control,171, 172 with apparent humoral mediation.173 Microwaves also induce human lymphocyte lymphoblastoid transformation in vitro.174
Anatomy and Histology
Schizophrenia reduction of medial temporal lobe structures, the hippocampal-amygdala complex, is observed in 74 % of magnetic resonance imaging studies, with left lateralized findings.175, 176 (37, Kasai) Microwaves affect both the hippocampus and the cortex. Chinese hamster 15 day microwave exposure produces pyknotic neurons in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and unspecified cortex areas (1.8 X US occup. std.) (110, McKee) Rat pre- thru post-natal ultra-wideband microwave exposure increased hippocampus lateral length. (111, Cobb) Such enlargement may indicate edema, reflecting pathology resulting in eventual size reduction. These rat pups stress vocalized more, and later mated less.
The thalamus is volume decreased in 42 % of schizophrenia studies, (175, Shenton) with lower neuron number in the anterioventral nucleus observed. 177 Light and electron microscopy of hamster 22 day microwave exposure reveals cytoplasm vacuolization and chromatolysis with a pale frothy cytoplasm in ventral thalamic neurons, and little rough endoplasmic reticulum, with very few polyribosomes (3 X occup. std.)178 Dendrites had vacuoles, myelin figures, and few microtubules.
Schizophrenia cerebellum changes are evident in numerous studies of neurological signs, postmortem specimens, 179 and in 31 % of neuroimaging studies. (175, Shenton) Atrophy is the main anatomic observation, but several studies show Purkinje cell loss. 180 Rat and quail pre-natal prolonged microwave exposure produces Purkinje cell loss and histologic change respectively (1.2 X US occup. std. & 3.1 X US pop. std.)181, 182 Rat post-natal microwave exposure also produces Purkinje cell decrease and cellular changes (1.2 X US occup. std.)183 (?181, Albert) Pulsed microwave rat balancing ability deficit suggests cerebellum motor influence (23 % of US pop. std.) (91, Frey, 77)
Prefrontal and parietal lobe volume reduction is reported by 60 % of studies for each area. (175, Shenton) Several microwave reports are of unspecified brain area change. Prolonged microwave rat exposure produces neuronal cytoplasm vacuolation, swelling, and beading of axons, with dendrite spine decrease (less than US occup. std.) 184 Extended microwave exposure produces myelin degeneration in rat brain, (184, Lai) and in guinea pig or rab